Volume 8, Issue 5, September 2019, Page: 81-89
Innovative Approach to Flame Retardant Cotton Fabrics with Phosphorus Rich Casein via Layer-by-Layer Processing
Sechin Chang, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Brian Condon, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Jade Smith, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Sunghyun Nam, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Received: Sep. 6, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 25, 2019;       Published: Oct. 23, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20190805.12      View  558      Downloads  190
Flame retardant behaviour was imparted using the layer-by layer assemblies of phosphorus rich casein milk protein with eco-friendly inorganic chemicals on cotton fabrics. The cotton twill fabrics were prepared using two solutions; a mixture of positively charged branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) with urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and negatively charged casein. Layer-by-layer assemblies for flame retardant properties were applied using the pad-dry-cure method, and each coating formula was rotated for 20 bi-layers. The effectiveness to resist flame spread on treated fabrics was evaluated using vertical (ASTM D6413-08) and 45° angle flammability test (ASTM D1230-01) methods. In most case, char lengths of fabrics that passed the vertical flammability tests were less than 50% of the original length, and after-flame and after-glow times were less than one second. Thermal properties were tested the extent of char produced by untreated and treated fabrics at 600°C by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Micro-scale combustion calorimeter (MCC) and Limiting oxygen indices (LOI, ASTM D2863-09) were also assessed. All untreated fabrics showed LOI values of about 21% oxygen in nitrogen. LOI values for the treated casein with BPEI/urea/DAP fabrics were greater than 29-34% between 5.80-9.59 add on wt%. Their structural characterizations were revealed by TGA/FT-IR and SEM methods. The treated fabrics exhibited improved thermal stability, as evidenced by increased ignition times and lower heat release rates. The results of this study show that flame retardant nanocoatings can be readily applied to textile fabrics using a continuous process that is ideal for commercial and industrial applications.
Layer-by-Layer, Cotton, Flame Retardant, TGA/FTIR, Thermogravimetric Analysis
To cite this article
Sechin Chang, Brian Condon, Jade Smith, Sunghyun Nam, Innovative Approach to Flame Retardant Cotton Fabrics with Phosphorus Rich Casein via Layer-by-Layer Processing, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2019, pp. 81-89. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20190805.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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